疝气是怎样形成的?应该如何治疗?

Posted on 24 1 月, 2023 / 1105

“疝气”,也有人把它叫“小肠气”,是指肠子从腹壁薄弱的地方突出来,鼓起来。这种现象有时候可以恢复,用手按一按突出来的部分,可以把它缩回去。像这种可以恢复的就没什么大问题。如果鼓出来了,推不回去,就比较麻烦。因为肠子有供血系统,如果肠子突出来时间长了,供血不足,容易出现肠子坏死。即使不出现肠子坏死,也容易出现肠梗阻的表现。病人会出现恶心、呕吐、腹痛、腹胀等症状。如果处理不好会变成急腹症,病人出现菌血症,败血症,需要马上进行手术,否则可能危及病人生命。

疝气在小孩中比较多见。婴幼儿由于腹部肌肉没有完全长好容易出现疝气。尤其男孩,在出生后睾丸需要下降到阴囊里,这一路走下来容易形成薄弱点,这就是为什么男孩子容易出现腹股沟疝气。如果小孩便秘问题比较严重,他在排便时,需要很用力,这样会增加腹压,这时肠子容易从薄弱的地方突出来。老年人的腹肌也会变薄弱,有些老人由于身体活动不便也容易出现便秘,用力排便时也容易诱发疝气。抬重的东西,举起重物等等这些容易增加腹压的动作,都容易造成疝气。如果腹壁没有缺口,那么做这些增加腹压的动作也不会有疝气。

在疝气不严重的情况下,可以系一个带子(上面带一个像枕头的东西)顶住疝气的位置,把带子系紧,相当于增加腹壁的强度,可以保证肠子不会突出出来。这是一种暂时性的应对方法,还需要增加运动,做一些理疗,让腹壁肌肉变强,才能从根本上解决问题。如果这种方法不行,就需要尽早找普通外科医生做手术,修补腹壁薄弱的地方。通常的方法是做腹腔镜,往里面放一个金属的网子,加强腹壁,肠子就不会再突出出来了。

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